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that he forgot that knowledge of goodness is not all that is required
to make men good, and failed to realize the impoSvsibility of
understanding what goodness is apart from the practice of good-
ness. In any case, his faith in extended knowledge as a cure for
the evils that beset Athens had a serious defect from the practical
point of view. There was a chance by no means remote that the
cure might come too late. Before the citizens could be brought
back to their loyalty by getting a rational basis for their lives, the
city might come to an untimely end because of their disloyalty,

It was partly the urgency of the practical problem, partly
deeper insight into the conditions of the problem, that led PLATO
to a view which resembled that of Xenophon at some points, and
which yet represented a more complete synthesis of all the facts
of the case than that of either Xenophon or Socrates. Like
Socrates, he said that for perfect goodness there is need of perfect
knowledge, that only the philosopher who has the idea of the
good is a completely good man. But he escaped the difficulties
of the Socratic doctrine by recognizing that there is a lesser good-
ness produced by right training that is a necessary stage on the
way to the idea of the good. That is to say, he combined the
view of Xenophon that goodness depends on habit with the view
of Socrates that goodness depends on the intellectual apprehension
of what the good is. And, moreover, when he came to convert
this view into a concrete form he was vSO far at one with Xenophon
that he also looked to Sparta for an example of the kind of training
that was best for the preliminary stage when the child or youth is
still unfit for the higher life of reason. But just because he saw
that this training was not a complete education for manhood, he
was faithful to the Socratic point of view and added to it those
influences in Athenian life that seemed to him necessary for the
all-round development of youthful^ character. In this way, the
new education that Plato hoped to see adopted by Athens was one
that combined the ideals represented by both Sparta and Athena.
To this comprehensive ideal Sparta contributed the conservative
element, the respect for custom and law based on habits and
sentiments, without which no State can endure: Athens con-
tributed those tendencies to social betterment, springing out of
political and intellectual freedom, without which the civic life is
scarcely worth living. His educational ideal was in all funda-
mental respects Athenian—not like Xenophon's, which was